Human-trafficking is essentially a form of slavery. It entails the movement of individuals against their will, and exploitation of their rights for profit through various services such as labour, or in this particular case: sexual services.
Victoria sobbed in fear as she felt exhaustion overtake her once again. When her eyes closed: they would come again. Sounds. Smells. Tastes. Touches. This dark room had no place to hide. Even in sleep she could not find rest. Where could she run? They would find her again.
There was no escape.
Victoria was a victim of domestic abuse when she was but a child. Her drunken father beat and killed her mother leaving her alone. What followed next was a whirlwind of neighbours, police, and social workers. Having gone through child protective services, she was placed into a new family. And that was where her story should have ended. Instead, her foster father pimped her out to his friends, and eventually other men who would put down money. She was ten.
Jacob clutched the few dollars he had, and ran back to his boyfriend. He was always running. Running at school. Running on the track team. Running away from his family… But with his new boyfriend, he didn’t have to run anymore. He could trust him.
The money wasn’t enough? Black eye. A couple dollars? Broken rib. How many people did he service? Coughing up blood. It was finally enough. A smile, all that Jacob wanted.
Jacob ran away from home when he came out to his family. His parents being very traditional refused to have a son who was LGBT, and he ended up wandering the streets of a large Ontario city. Very soon he fell into a group of fellow street teens who showed him how to survive. One of them took a liking to him, sharing food, advice, a bed. Then the drugs happened. Jacob couldn’t pay up, and his boyfriend beat him. Jacob loved him. He wanted it to go back to the way it was before. So he started selling himself out to pay his debts. He was 19.
Jasmine clutched the edge of the sink and looked at herself in the mirror. She was beautiful once. Her father loved her and called her his princess. Her mother found the best clothes for her and dressed her up like a doll. But then the war happened.
The handsome man that met her in town came from Canada he said. She was very kind and gentle he said. He had children at home and would love to have her come and take care of them. She accepted. She was trapped.
The door opened. Another client. Smile he said. The men like it better when she is happy he said. You belong to me. He said.
Jasmine came from a war torn country. In that instability, a trafficker promised her legitimate work in Canada with promises of citizenship. Upon entering the country, her passport was stolen and she was sold to the next bidder. She was told that she needed to pay back her handler for fees, and that if she went to police she would be deported. She was 24.
Disclaimer: All the vignettes you just read are not real individuals. Rather, they are a culmination of many real people who have been in these situations or are currently in these situations. They have names. They have stories. They could have been you.
Human trafficking is one of the most underreported crimes in Canada. The latest report from Stats Canada (2009-2016), states that there were 1220 confirmed reports of human trafficking. Over 723 (65.8%) of these cases were in Ontario, of which 48 were in Windsor, 46 in London, and 272 in Toronto. As of September 2018, We Fight, an anti-human trafficking project in Windsor stated they have 80 open cases. Keep in mind, that this is a gross underestimate of the problem since these are the cases that were confirmed by law enforcement. Due to the nature of all illegal activity, it is extremely hard to have proper estimates of the extent of this problem. In 2013, the US Department of State released their annual report on human trafficking stating that for the 40,000 worldwide confirmed victims the previous year, it was estimated that there were still 27 million people being trafficked worldwide which were unreported. According to the Canadian Department of Justice, net revenues for trafficking on a worldwide basis account for about 32 billion dollars: an exceptionally lucrative business for organized crime and gangs.
There is no one profile of trafficked victims. Like the above stories, they come from all backgrounds and histories. However, statistically, most victims are young girls and women, starting from an age as early as 12, if not younger. In a 2013 report from the Canadian Women’s Foundation, many victims of sex-trafficking came from low socioeconomic backgrounds, homelessness, discrimination and/or childhood trauma. It should also be noted that nearly 50% of women who are trafficked in Canada belong to indigenous populations, which is absolutely horrific considering the fact that indigenous women only make up 4% of the population of women in Canada. The RCMP reports that many of these people are sold, bought, and moved against their will and forced to perform sexual acts in: “hotels/private residences and in adult entertainment establishments”.
So now comes the inevitable question? What can I do about it? As future or current physicians, we are among the frontline personnel to have contact with victims of trafficking. Studies suggest that almost 28% of victims of trafficking will eventually get into contact with healthcare workers during their imprisonment. This is a very large window of opportunity on a healthcare standpoint for early recognition and intervention. The more knowledge we have on this topic, the better our chances at identifying high-risk situations and responding to them effectively. If we, as physicians are aware to the extent of the problem and the signs of this issue, people like Victoria, Jacob, and Jasmine might stand a chance.
Below are pertinent signs of trafficking. For more information on who to contact, the end of the report from the Ontario Ministry of Children, Community and Social Services has a map in which you can enter your city and have agencies listed.
What to Look For (from the London Anti-Human Trafficking Committee): People who are being trafficked may: - Speak neither English nor French, or may not speak on their own behalf - May be accompanied by someone who is controlling them - Originate from foreign countries or from another city/province within Canada - Be unaware of local surroundings although they have been in the area for a while; - Show evidence of control, intimidation or abnormal psychological fear; - Not be able to move or leave job; - Have bruises or show other signs of abuse; - Show signs of malnourishment; - Be frequently accompanied or moved by their trafficker. Map of Resources from the ON Ministry of Children, Community, & Social Services
Author: Phong Nguyen
Phong Nguyen completed his BSc.[H] in Biology at the University of Windsor. Following graduation, he worked in the US with social work non-profits providing assistance to vulnerable populations: in particular, youth experiencing homelessness and in crisis. Now at Schulich, he hopes to pursue work related to advocacy, social inequities, and field medicine.